In this paper, we present some policies and strategies to address the ecological deficit in the member countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). We first present an overview of the biocapacity of the various countries, the ecological footprint and then the ecological deficit. The aim of this overview is to highlight the differences that may exist and to explain these differences from the point of view of the structure of the economies analyzed. Then, we estimate a simple model (per country) to highlight the effects of some economic and environmental factors on the ecological footprint. We end with policy proposals and strategies to reduce the ecological footprint at the country level. These policies include the adoption of clean energy in production and consumption chains in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and the promotion of green financing to support initiatives aimed at the energy transition, such as the green bonds issued by the African Development Bank (AfDB) since October 10, 2013. Beyond these policies, States must clearly include the "sustainable economy" component in their strategic development plans. Regional coordination of actions is also necessary for more efficiency in the management of the ecological issue in the ECOWAS region.